What are Active (AON) and Passive (PON) Optical Networks?

Fiber to the home (FTTH) enables the installation of fiber from a central point directly into the end user’s home, providing unprecedented high-speed Internet access. There are two types of systems that implement FTTH network deployment: AON (Active Optical Network) and PON (Passive Optical Network).

Fiber to the home (FTTH) enables the installation of fiber from a central point directly into the end user’s home, providing unprecedented high-speed Internet access. There are two types of systems that implement FTTH network deployment: AON (Active Optical Network) and PON (Passive Optical Network).

What is AON?

AON is Active Optical Network active optical network, mainly using point-to-point (PTP) network architecture, each user can have a dedicated optical fiber line. Active optical network refers to the deployment of switching devices such as routers and switching aggregators, active optical devices, etc., from the central office equipment to the user distribution unit during the signal transmission process. These switching devices are driven by electricity to manage Customer-specific signal assignments and directional signals. Active optical devices include light sources (lasers), optical receivers, optical transceiver modules, optical amplifiers (fiber amplifiers and semiconductor optical amplifiers), etc.

What are Active (AON) and Passive (PON) Optical Networks?

What is PON?

PON is Passive Optical Network passive optical network, a point-to-multipoint network structure, is the main technology to realize FTTB/FTTH. In the passive optical network, ODN (Optical Distribution Network) only uses optical fibers and passive components, and only needs to use charged equipment at the signal source and signal receiving end. In a typical PON system, the optical splitter is the core, and the optical splitter is used to separate and collect the optical signals transmitted through the network. These splitters for PON are bidirectional. In the downstream direction, IP data, voice, video and other services are distributed by the OLT located in the central office through the 1:N passive optical distributor in the ODN by broadcasting. To all ONU units on the PON; in the upstream direction, various service information from each ONU is coupled to the same fiber through the 1:N passive optical combiner in the ODN without interfering with each other, and finally sent to the OLT at the central office for reception end.

What are Active (AON) and Passive (PON) Optical Networks?

A passive optical network includes an optical line terminal (OLT) installed in the central control station, and a group of supporting optical network units (ONUs) installed in the user’s premises. The optical distribution network (ODN) between the OLT and the ONU consists of optical fibers and passive optical splitters or couplers. PON is divided into ATM-based APON (ATM PON), Ethernet-based EPON (Ethernet PON), and General? Frame? Protocol’s GPON (Gigabit PON) three technical standards.

In the AON network, users have dedicated optical fiber lines, which are easy for later network maintenance, capacity expansion, and network upgrades. And AON networks have a wide coverage, covering a range of about 100 kilometers; PON networks are usually limited to fiber-optic cables up to 20 kilometers long. AON mainly guides optical signals through active devices, and PON uses passive devices without power supply, resulting in higher cost of AON network deployment than PON.

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