At the beginning of the new year in 2020, the raging of the new crown epidemic has spawned 5G applications such as telemedicine, online learning, video conferencing, and online office. 5G application scenarios such as large bandwidth, low latency, and wide connectivity are gradually enriched and expanded. As the basis for 5G applications, the new 5G network infrastructure is still advancing in a tight and orderly manner despite the impact of the epidemic, both domestically and abroad. China Academy of Information and Communications Technology’s Thiel System Laboratory (hereinafter referred to as “China Academy of Information and Communications Technology’s Thier System Laboratory”) has been actively tracking and participating in the work of 3GPP, ITU and other international standardization organizations for a long time, and has led the formulation of many domestic 5G industry standards. After continuous construction and preparation in 5G standard formulation, technical personnel training, testing equipment and environmental facilities, the testing capabilities of system equipment such as 5G base stations have formed a scale.
Changes in 5G base stations relative to 4G base stations
In terms of working frequency bands, according to the 3GPP 38.101 agreement, 5G base station equipment mainly uses FR1 frequency band (450MHz-6GHz) and FR2 frequency band (24.25GHz-52.6GHz), the former is also called Sub-6GHz frequency band. Since most of the frequency bands covered by FR2 are frequencies with a wavelength of less than 10 millimeters, it is also called the “millimeter wave” frequency band. The two millimeter wave frequency bands of 24.25-27.5GHz and 37-43.5GHz are the frequency bands supported by most countries. At present, in China, in the initial stage of new infrastructure construction, 5G networks are mainly built in the Sub-6GHz frequency band. In foreign countries, some operators use the millimeter wave frequency band to build 5G networks.
In terms of base station form, 4G base stations are mainly composed of BBU, RRU and passive antennas, while 5G base stations have become BBU (CU (centralized unit) + DU (distributed unit)) and AAU (RRU + antenna feeder system, that is, active antenna). , 4 station types are defined in 3GPP: conduction type (BS type 1-C), hybrid type (BS type 1-H), and air interface type (BS type 1-O, type 2-O).
In terms of key technologies, 5G base stations have introduced massive MIMO technology and beamforming technology. Massive MIMO technology greatly improves network capacity and signal quality through more antennas. 5G base stations using massive MIMO technology can not only improve network capacity by multiplexing more wireless signal streams, but also greatly improve network coverage through beamforming. The beamforming technology adjusts the spatial distribution of the antenna gain, so that the signal energy is more concentrated to the target terminal during transmission, so as to compensate for the loss of spatial transmission after the signal is sent, and greatly improve the network coverage capability.
5G base station core detection capability of Tell System Laboratory
As the lead unit, the China Academy of Information and Communications Technology’s Taier System Laboratory led the completion of the YD/T 2583.17-2019 “Electromagnetic Compatibility Requirements and Measurement Methods for Cellular Mobile Communication Equipment Part 17: 5G Base Stations and Their Ancillary Equipment” 5G Base Station Electromagnetic Compatibility Standard This standard is the world’s first electromagnetic compatibility standard for 5G base stations and has become a reference document for my country’s network access test. In addition, the laboratory-led industry standard “Requirements and Measurement Methods for Air Interface Electromagnetic Characteristics of 5G Active Integrated Systems” has been established, which will continue to assist in the testing and certification of electromagnetic characteristics of 5G system equipment.
At the same time, the Tel System Laboratory of the China Academy of Information and Communications Technology has innovatively introduced a compact field test system to complete the OTA radio frequency test capability building of 5G base station transmitters and receivers, especially the millimeter wave radio frequency OTA test capability construction that is currently the most technically difficult. The laboratory completed the CNAS expansion work of the latest 3GPP-related standards at the fastest speed, meeting the development needs of the industry for the first time. Make the laboratory the first 5G testing laboratory in China to pass the CNAS certification.
Relying on this compact field test platform, we have completed the first batch of 5G base station network access tests for a number of major equipment manufacturers, and provided customers with professional technical support in domestic certification testing, product development testing and other aspects. According to the latest 3GPP standards, completed the overseas commissioned test of an equipment manufacturer’s mid-low frequency 5G base station and millimeter-wave base station. The test reports issued have been recognized by foreign operators, and the company participated in the operator’s 5G construction bidding and expanded overseas markets. , the rapid resumption of work and production during the epidemic has provided strong support.
In terms of electromagnetic radiation of 5G base stations, the China Academy of Information and Communications Technology’s Taier System Laboratory is entrusted by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, the Ministry of Ecology and Environment and other relevant ministries and commissions, and cooperates with the three major operators and domestic main equipment manufacturers to carry out 5G base station electromagnetic radiation monitoring and research, with the support of the Ministry of Ecology and Environment. my country’s first electromagnetic radiation environment monitoring standard for 5G base stations, “5G Mobile Communication Base Station Electromagnetic Radiation Environment Monitoring Method”, jointly drafted by the unit, has been completed and will be released in due course. This research proposes innovative technological breakthroughs in traditional radiation monitoring methods and brings new ideas for electromagnetic radiation environmental protection.
In addition, the Tel System Laboratory of the China Academy of Information and Communications Technology also has the ability to detect electromagnetic compatibility, electromagnetic radiation, electrical safety and network quality of 5G base station system equipment. For 5G-related upstream and downstream industries and infrastructure, conduct 5G array antenna passive radiation characteristics, circuit characteristics and environmental reliability tests. 5G base station AAU radome mechanical performance, material performance, radiation performance test. At the same time, it has the ability to detect 5G access network related equipment, including on-board lightning protection products for 5G base stations, optical cables and optical modules for 5G, smart tower detection services for 5G, 5G integrated power supply system, 5G meter measurement test, etc. Realize one-stop testing services for 5G industry.
5G base station RF OTA test
5G Antenna Test
5G Base Station Electromagnetic Radiation Detection and Evaluation
5G Base Station Electromagnetic Compatibility Test
5G testing business coverage of Tell System Laboratory
With the gradual expansion of the global market, while promoting the development of my country’s 5G industry, it is also necessary for Chinese manufacturing to move to overseas markets. The China Academy of Information and Communications Technology’s Taier System Laboratory launched the certification and access commissioned testing of 5G system equipment in countries along the “Belt and Road”. At present, the test reports of 5G base stations, antennas and other products issued by the laboratory have been recognized by operators in Thailand, Indonesia and other countries, helping more Chinese manufacturers to go abroad and enter the international market. China Academy of Information and Communications Technology Taier System Laboratory adheres to the concept of “customer-centric, creating value for customers, adhering to market orientation and problem orientation, and seeking breakthroughs through innovation”, and will continue to improve its own testing capabilities in the construction of new 5G infrastructure projects , pursue innovation, and strive to provide one-stop service for 5G new infrastructure.
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